Albert Einstein who is known as the father of modern physics was born at Ulm in Germany on 14 March 1879. when he was one year, his parents moved to Munich.
He was very shy in his childhood. But, right from the beginning, Einstein was interested in science. Once his father gifted him a watch with a magnetic compass. His attention went to the compass rather than the watch and began to ask several questions about the compass.
Einstein was sharp in mathematics. When he was 15, his family moved to Italy, and from there to Switzerland. There he entered the Zurich University and in 1900 completed his education. He wanted to be a teacher but ultimately became a clerk in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1903 he got married to Mileva Mavec a Yugoslav science student. Einstein, who was used to take his child in a pram for a walk, always carried a notebook with him to jot down ideas on the way. He always thought about science, particularly about mathematics and physics. That notebook contained many solutions regarding the problems of the universe.
Einstein got through his Ph.D. degree in 1905 at the age of 26. he published four research papers. Almost overnight he became a world famous scientist.
In his first paper he showed that when light falls on metal like potassium, tungsten, they emit electrons. He called this electron “Photoelectronic effect.” For propounding the theory of this effect he was awarded the Noble Prize in 1921.
In his second paper, he gave the theory according to which the motion of free particles in a liquid is due to the collision of particles with the molecules of the liquid.
In the third paper which was related to the “Special Theory of Relativity” in which he showed that the physical quantities like mass, length and time are not constant, but vary with the velocity of the body. This paper student the world as few scientists understood it fully at that time.
In his fourth paper, he gave the revolutionary idea of establishing the equivalence of matter and energy. According to this theory, if one pound of the matter is converted into energy then it will give energy equal to that obtained by burning seven million tons of dynamite. The atomic bomb was the result of this.
In the fifth paper, Einstein proved that light travels in the form of particles called photons. In 1916 he published a paper and explained the way the force of gravity works.
As the Jews condition in Germany was miserable in Hitler’s regime he went to America. He worked on the development of the Atom Bomb in the regime of President Roosevelt. He saw the disaster of his Atom Bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and was disgusted. He wanted to use the power for peace and worked throughout for peace and died on 18th April 1955.