It is a fact that seven thousand years ago, the man had hands, eyes, and brain as good as those of today man. But how were they put to use has little evidence. Lack of records of that period makes a study impossible.
Recorded evidence is, of course, available of Egypt and Mesopotamia five or six thousand years ago. These must have been done by the wise priests, who understood difficult thing such as, writing, the movement of stars, the art of architecture, metallurgy and medicine and whatever else that was considered wisdom.
Of every period, Volumes can be written on what man wanted to know and how he learned. Indeed, it must have been a great inquisitiveness that made man watch night after night without any suitable instrument, such as, a telescope, the slow change in the position of stars etc. He was very thoughtful to connect the appearances of new stars with the changing seasons. Ultimately, Astronomy, the science of planets and stars, was born. Water clock and sand clock were invented to measure time. Marking time is a very significant step in the field of science, as it marks the prime theory of nature, its regularity.
The Great Pyramid, dated 2800 B.C. is a marvelous feat of the engineering of that period. It must have been the end result of a good study and application of practical Geometry. Early people in their own way studied medicine with no knowledge of anatomy. Thus, the foundation of science was laid purely due to the scientific attitude of mind, questioning, and reasoning.